United Nations Forum for the Transition

SI  VIS  PACEM  PARA  PACEM!   If you want peace, prepare for peace! 平和を望むなら平和に備えよ









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The Principle of Sovereign Equality is like a house, in which all the windows must be closed at all times, so as not to let in the winds of change. But once you start opening windows, change becomes inevitable. The Japanese article is like a single window opened. By itself it does not bring about any change. If a second window were opened, just beside the first one, you will get a little draft. This is what would happen if Korea, for example, were to adopt the position of Article IX. If a window is opened at the opposite end of the house, you will get a great draft. The result will be that soon the winds of change are everywhere.

Scholars agree that Article IX is without precedent and unique in constitutional law. Its main feature is its ?ar-abolishing·directive, entailing a limitation of Japan? national sovereignty with respect to the country? right to go to war.  In this way Japan may be said to be ?ut of line·with respect to the principle of the sovereign equality of all the United Nations members. According to this principle all UN member states have the right of individual and collective self-defense. In the constitution? PREAMBLE also, the Japanese people have pledged their honor to uphold the Constitution? pacifist principle.

(Note: Given the interdependence among peoples and nations in the world today, there are · almost ·no closed doors!)

Article IX of the Japanese Constitution (3 May 1947):

[1] Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as a means of settling international disputes.

[2] In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land, sea and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized.

Artikel IX der Japanischen Verfassung (JV/JC) vom 3. Mai 1947:

(1) In aufrichtigem Streben nach einem auf Gerechtigkeit und Ordnung gegr·deten internationalen Frieden verzichtet das japanische Volk f· alle Zeiten auf Krieg als souver?es Recht der Nation und auf die Androhung oder Aus·ung milit?ischer Gewalt als ein Mittel zur Regelung internationaler Streitigkeiten.

(2) Um den Zweck des vorstehenden Absatzes zu erreichen, werden Land-, See- und Luftstreitkr?te sowie andere Kriegsmittel nicht unterhalten. Ein Kriegf·rungsrecht des Staates wird nicht anerkannt.

(Quelle: Reinhard Neumann, ?nderung und Wandlung der Japanischen Verfassung, K?n, Berlin, Bonn, M·chen: Carl Heymanns, 1982)



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